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上善若水止于至善(马小秋:止于至善与上善若水)

作者 | 马小秋

继《秋言物语》的“大学之道”之后,有人问我:《大学》中的"止于至善"和《道德经》中的"上善若水",是不是同一个境界?

Following the "method of great learning" in Qiu Yan Wu Yu, some people once again asked me that whether "resting in the extreme excellence" in The Great Learning is the same realm as "the highest excellence is like water" in Tao Te Ching?

要说明这个问题,首先我们要明白"止于至善"的真正含义。止于至善是通过我们的心念力、行动力、智慧力使我们的生命完全发挥出利益社会和大众的具体实践,并在不断的具体实践中打造一个和谐美好的人间天堂。

To explain this problem, first of all we have to understand the true meaning of "resting in the extreme excellence" that is to make our lives fully play the specific practices good for the society and the public through our mind power, action and wisdom as well as to create a harmonious and beautiful paradise in constant practices.

再看"上善若水"。上善乃高境界的善,这种善的特征、品性和水一样,"水善利万物而不争,处众人之所恶,故几于道"。水具备利益万物的功能,却从不居功自傲。天下所有有情众生(一切动物)和无情众生(一切植物)都离不开水的滋养。天下所有的污垢,水都能把它洗刷干净,但水却永远处于低位。这就是水接近于"道"的特征和品性。

For "the highest excellence is like water", the highest excellence is the high realm of excellence. This kind of excellence is like water in character. "The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving to the contrary, the low place which all men dislike. Hence its way is near to that of the Tao." Water has the function to benefit all things, but never be arrogant. All the sentient beings (all animals) and the insentient beings (all plants) in the world are inseparable from the nourishment of water. All the dirt in the world can be washed clean by water. But the water is always low. This is the character of water close to the "Tao".

在此,我还想说明的是,水"故几于道"就是接近于道而不完全是道。因为水是有名,有相的,而"道"是无形、无相、无名的。

Here, I would also like to note that the way of water "is near to that of the Tao" that is the way of water is close to the Tao but not completely the Tao. Because the water has sound and appearance and the "Tao" is intangible, invisible and soundless.

因此,"止于至善"和“上善若水”是同一境界而不同名的一种说法,都是接近于"道"而不完全是"道"。"道"乃空性,含养万物而无善恶之分别。"至善"和"上善"还有善恶之分别,而"道"则无善恶分别,容纳一切。

Therefore, the "resting in the extreme excellence" and "the highest excellence is like water" are in the same realm and have different names, which are close to the "Tao" but not entirely the "Tao". "Tao" is empty, benefiting all things without the difference of goodness and evil. The "extreme excellence" and the "highest excellence" have difference in goodness and evil, while the "Tao" has not and includes everything.

秋言物语-发表,2017年6月15日马小秋分享

翻译| 王婷婷 图片 | 来源网络


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